It is thought that two Roman festivals became incorporated with Samhain - 'Feralia', when the Romans commemorated the passing of the dead, and 'Pomona', when the Roman goddess of fruit and trees was honoured. The Halloween tradition of bobbing for apples is thought to derive from the ancient links with the Roman fruit goddess, Pomona, and a Druidical rite associated with water.
This is also All Saints Day in the Christian calendar.
The Samonios image above and text below, by Helen Benigni, are kindly taken with permission from the angelfire.com website.
The month of SAMONIOS is a month of miraculous births beginning with the appearance of the twin stars of Castor and Pollux on the Eastern Horizon. These miraculously born twins, from an egg containing both mortal and immortal potential, bridge the gap between this world and the Otherworld with their appearance on the first quarter moon heralding the Holy Nights of Winter Solstice. Further into the month shortly after the third quarter of the moon, a trio of stars including Rigel, Betelguese, and Castor march across the sky to illiminate this Oenach of light and birth.
Literally translated as "seed fall," SAMONIOS is the month when the light of the Dagda, the seed of his loins, penetrates the womb of the earth and creates life. This light is symbolized by the sunrise of the Winter Solstice penetrating the inner chambers of the sacred mounds of the Neolithic peoples. At Newgrange, the sacred mound of the Bru na Boinne, the light of the Winter Solstice shines through a roof-box of white quartz for seventeen minutes to dramatically illuminate the cruciform chamber of the passage tomb. Here, the stone-carved geometric motifs common to trance states of shamanic ecstasy amplify the light in order that the observer may experience the light of life bestowed by the solar deity.
This solar alignment initiates the light half of the year. Mistletoe is hung as a symbol of the immortal love that the good father, Dagda brought to Boand, the goddess of the Bru na Boinne. Oengus, the son of their union and the Lord of the Sid mound, guards the entrance to the Otherworld and immortal life.